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Full text of "Why North Carolina should erect and preserve memorials and mark historic places : address before the North Carolina Literary and Historical Association, Raleigh, N.C., November 4, 1909"

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Why N. C. Should Erect 
and Preserve Memorials 

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[Reprinted from the North Carolina, Review, Literary and 
Historical Section of the News and Observer.'] 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 






RALEIGH, N. C . NOVEMBER 4. 1909. 

[Reprinted from the North Carolina Review, Literary and Historical Section of the 
News and Observer.] 

This afternoon marks the tenth an- 
nual session of this association. Just 
a decade ago a company of patriotic 
North Carolinians gathered together 
and organized the State Literary and 
Historical Association. The purposes 
of the organization are: 

"The collection, preservation, pro- 
duction and dissemination of State 
literature and history; the encourage- 
ment of public and school libraries; 
the establishment of an historical mu- 
seum; the inculcation of a literary 
spirit among our people; the correc- 
tion of printed misrepresentations con- 
cerning North Carolina; and the en- 
gendering of an intelligent, healthy 
State pride in the rising generation." 

As a result of their efforts: 

(a) Twenty-four hundred libraries 
have been established in rural public 
schools, containing two hundred thou- 
sand well selected books with a read- 
ing circle of a million people. 

(b) The Hall of History has been 
established containing the best collec- 
tion of historical relics to be found 
in the South. It is annually visited by 
more than 50,000 sons and daughters 
of the State to whom the exhibit Is a 
revelation and an inspiration. The 
display is an object lesson which in 
a few minutes demonstrates and 
teaches more of the State's history 
than can be learned in months of 
book study. Under the enthusiastic 
and devoted care of Col. F. A. Olds 
this museum has grown to be the pride 
of the State, and now contains over 
seven thousand articles, many of them 
of priceless historical value. It is in 
its infancy and when domiciled in a 
fire-proof building it will easily mul- 
tiply itself to seven times seven thou- 
sand relics. 

(c) This association has caused the 
establishment of North Carolina Day 
in the public schools whereby one day 

in each year is devoted to the celebra- 
tion of North Carolina history. On 
that day more than half a million 
children with their relatives and 
friends gather together to hear the 
story of their mother State. 

(d) In an effort to preserve the in- 
tegrity of our history and defend the 
State from misrepresentation, it set- 
tled beyond question our claim of 
"First at Bethel, Farthest at Gettys- 
burg, Last at Appomattox." These 
are no longer controverted state- 
ments in our history and we have 
chiseled the facts on imperishable 
granite and placed upon the gory 
fields of Bethel, Chickamauga and Ap- 
pomattox stones marking North Caro- 
lina's positions. 

(e) This association has inculcated 
a literary spirit and a desire for his- 
toric research among our people, with 
the result that more literature is now 
being written in North Carolina than 
she has ever before produced. Un- 
der its influence a gifted Carolinian 
has offered a jeweled cup to the au- 
thor of the best work of the preceding 

(f) A few years ago the student of 
North Carolina history had to rely 
upon almost inaccessible manuscripts 
and the obscure writings of William- 
son, Martin, Hawks and a few others. 
It is true, Murphy, Graham, Jones, 
HJubbard, Swain, Wiley, Davis and 
some others at a later period wrote 
ably and well, but we had nothing 
from them approaching the dignity of 
a story of our people. 

In the midst of many difficulties 
Wheeler and Moore with great labor 
dug out much of the history of North 
Carolina. Then came Saunders with 
his monumental work, the Colonial 
Records, followed by Judge Clark with 
his State Records, covering the period 
from 1776 to 1791. 

With the two hundred years of our 
State's life, our history writers could 
be counted within a score. Now more 
than a score are at work in a labor 
of love telling the story of an heroic 
past and a teeming present and the 
task has just begun. Within the decade 
Battle, Ashe, Graham, Clark, Hill, 
Peele, Weeks, Connor, Hamilton, 
Nash, Clewell, Pittman, Boyd, Sims. 
Allen, Hoyt, Waddell, Sikes, Noble, 
Schenck, Haywood, Bassett, Grady, 
Dodd and others have written and are 
now writing with accuracy and ability. 
Today a scholar desiring to study the 
history of North Carolina would go to 
the University of Wisconsin rather 
than to our own University; to the 
capital of Wisconsin or Massachusetts. 
rather than to our own capital for his 
material. In a few years all this will 
be changed. 

Among other credits due the Litera- 
ry and Historical Association is the 
creation of the North Carolina Histor- 
ical Commission. The act establish- 
ing it declares that, 

"It shall be the duty of the Com- 
mission to have collected from the 
files of old newspapers, court records, 
church records, private collections, 
and elsewhere, historical data pertain- 
ing to the history of North Carolina 
and the territory included therein 
from the earliest times; to have such 
material properly edited, published t>y 
the State Printer as other State print- 
ing, and distributed under the direc- 
tion of the Commission; to care for 
proper marking and preservation of 
battle-fields, houses and other places 
celebrated in the history of the State; 
to diffuse knowledge in reference to 
the history and resources of North 
Carolina; to encourage the study of 
North Carolina history in the schools 
of the State, and to stimulate and en- 
courage historical investigation and 
research among the people of the 

This Commission is not only gather- 
ing records, manuscripts, historic ma- 
terial and relics, but it is endeavoring 
to arouse our people to the necessity 
of preserving our memorials and im- 
press upon them the importance of 
telling the story of the Old North 
State in paintings, marble and bronze. 
It is making an effort to secure the 
erection of monuments to the great 
men and great events in our history 
and as far as possible to locate and 
mark historic sites in North Carolina. 
The State Literary and Historical As- 
sociation from now on should lend 
itself and bend itself to co-operate 
with the Historical Commission to 
that end. 

Prom the earliest civilizations of 
antiquity, nations have adorned their 

halls with statues of their rulers and 
patriots and ornamented their walls 
with pictorial stories of national traits 
and heroism. By song and story, pic- 
torial history and allegory they have 
kept ever present before their peoples 
the hero traditions of their races. They 
have garlanded their triumphs and 
woven the willow and cypress to make 
more sacred their lost causes. Not 
only should we cluster in and around 
our capital such monuments and me- 
morials, but we should mark the his- 
toric places within our State and 
such places within our neighboring 
States as have been made sacred by 
the blood of our hero soldiers and 
have been the scene of their prowess 
and valor. 

To the traveler there must be a feel- 
ing of disappointment when he comes 
to North Carolina. Accustomed as he 
is in visiting the capitals of the old 
world to read their history and study 
the li-'J of the nations in monuments 
and marble busts, in portraits, great 
paintings and magnificent buildings, 
he cannot but feel and be impressed 
with our want of pride. In the States 
to the north of us every hamlet and 
every city has markers, tablets and 
monuments commemorating every im- 
portant event in its history; every 
man who has served his State is re- 
membered with granite, marble or 
bronze. Their story is told to all the 
world, their greatness proclaimed to 
all men and their States enriched by 
their services and their people are 
ennobled in the eyes of the world and 
elevated in their own self esteem. 

What avails a great deed after the 
crisis that called it forth has passed, 
if it is not recorded? It is lost, its 
memory is gone, its example is wasted; 
whereas, if recorded it will live to in- 
spire others to emulate, and its story 
will enrich the world. We must study 
the past to guide and inspire the pres- 
ent, avoiding its weaknesses, emu- 
lating its successes and profiting by 
its experiences. Our life and our 
being are part of it — built on it. If 
built on honor and virtue, our future 
is safe; if characterless and weak, the 
future is less hopeful. "We must 
know how we became what we are in 
order to become better than we are." 

"The roots of the present lie deep in 
the past, and nothing in the past is 
dead to the man who would learn how 
the present came to be what it is." 
"Men may rise on stepping stones of 
their dead selves to higher things." 
Because we are a Democratic people 
with Democratic tastes is no reason 
why we should withhold honor from 
those who have served us faithfully 
and well. 

A gifted author has written, "A 
democracy, fellow citizens, cannot af- 
ford to be ungrateful. Built as it is 
upon loyal service and patriotic sacri- 
fice, the day of its forgetting will be 
the day of its undermining." Justice 
has not been done our dead, we have 
not been jealous of their fame and 
zealous in seeing that they have re- 
ceived their just meed of praise, 
neither have we been grateful for 
their services. The people of North 
Carolina have been doers rather than 
writers. They have been wanting in 
State pride and that lack has been 
largely for want of a State history. 
They have lacked self assertion and 
self appreciation because there was 
no record to which they could appeal. 
Those who would defend their State 
were ignorant of the testimony. We 
have been sensitive because historians 
neglected or misrepresented us, while 
it has largely been our own fault, as 
we have expected others to do for us 
what we have not done for ourselves. 
We had to learn that we must keep 
our own records to receive proper 
credits. North Carolina has been sub- 
jected to ridicule, misrepresentation 
and malignment from the day of Seth 
Sothel, Urmstone, Byrd and Chalmers 
on down to the ninth edition of the 
Encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 1, pg. 
719) where we find, after a discussion 
of the thinkers in the South, "Nor is it 
too much to say that mainly by their 
connection with the North, the Caro- 
linas have been saved from sinking to 
the level of Mexico or the Antilles." 

We are unknown to the outside 
world because we are almost unknown 
to ourselves. The early royalist 

writers draw unkind pictures of us be- 
cause "the most inconsiderable com- 
munity of North Carolina has never 
relinquished the flattering gratifica- 
tion of self rule." Many of our own 
historians fell into the error of accept- 
ing the royalist views and even some 
of our more recent painters have 
clouded rather than illumined the can- 
vas in making the picture of the early 
Carolinians. He was the freest of the 
free. He demanded the rights under 
his charter and under the Great Deed 
of Grant. With him the fundamental 
ideal was self government and he 
waged a continual fight against usurp- 
ed authority, resisting and arresting 
any invasion of his guaranteed rights. 
Patriotism was his religion, his hearth- 
stone was his altar and he loved the 
soil that gave him inspiration, 
strength and sustenance. 

In our capitol today the only monu- 
ment or bust is to a South Carolinian. 
Eight empty niches in the rotunda in- 
variably provoke comment from the 

historians, scholars and sightseers. 
These blanks misrepresent our State 
as it leaves the impression that we 
have had no sons whom we admired 
and esteemed sufficiently to commem- 
orate in marble or bronze. It is the 
purpose of the Historical Commission, 
at an early date, to place in one of 
these niches a bust of one of the great- 
est men of the Union — William A. 
Graham. We hope the people of the 
State, acting through their legislature, 
will soon fill them all with busts of 
other great North Carolinians. 

In the Hall of the General Assem- 
bly there are three great paintings — ■ 
only one of them to a North Caro- 
linian — Zebulon B. Vance. In the 
capitol grounds for generations the 
only statue was of a Virginian, but in 
the last decade a heroic statue of the 
beloved Vance has been erected by 
the State and the people. There has 
also been erected a bronze figure to 
the gallant Worth Bagley. 

In the Statuary Hall at Washington, 
both the niches assigned to North 
Carolina are still vacant, though the 
General Assembly of 1907 authorized 
the placing of a statue to Vance in one 
of them after 1911. 

It would be to the credit of North 
Carolina to erect memorials to the 
leading characters in the most re- 
markable incidents in her history. We 
should preserve the name and fame 
of such men as John Culpepper, 
George Durant and Capt. James 
Blount, leaders in the Culpepper Revo- 
lution against usurped power. They 
were the first men in America to set 
up a government independent of royal 
authority. An effort is now being 
made by patriotic ladies in Pasquo- 
tank County to mark the place where 
this assembly was held. There should 
be a memorial to John Porter, the 
father of democracy in North Caro- 
lina, the leader of the people in their 
fight for chartered rights and against 
the test oaths of an established 
church. His lieutenant and successor 
to leadership, Edward Moseley, should 
also be remembered. Of him the 
Hon. George Davis wrote: 

"Of all the men who watched and 
guarded the tottering footsteps of our 
infant State, there was not one who 
in intellectual ability, in solid and po- 
lite learning, in scholarly cultivation 
and refinement, in courage and en- 
durance, in high Christian morality, 
in generous consideration for the wel- 
fare of others, in all the true merit, 
in fine, which makes a man among 
men could equal Edward Moseley." 

Col. Saunders said, "And to him, 
above all others, should North Caro- 
lina erect her first statue, for to him, 
above all others, is she indebted for 
stimulating that love of liberty regu- 

lated by law, and that hatred of ar- 
bitrary government that has ever 
characterized her people." 

The day will come in North Carolina 
when we shall see statues, monuments 
and memorials to such men as Col. 
James Moore, who in time of need 
brought his South Carolina soldiers 
to our relief and defeated the Indians 
at Nohoroco. 

To Col. James Innes, Commander- 
in-Chief of the American forces in 
the expedition to the Ohio against the 
French and Indians, who as Governor 
of Fort Cumberland received and pro- 
tected the broken and fugitive forces 
of Braddock on their flight from that 
ill-fated field; (Col. Innes left his plan- 
tation, Point Pleasant, and other 
property to establish a "free school 
for the benefite of the youth of 
North Carolina.") 

To General Hugh Waddell. a hero 
of the Fort Duquesne expedition, the 
foremost soldier of the colony and 
the commander of an expedition 
against the Indians. 

To Samuel Swann, the veteran 
Speaker of the Assembly; to "The 
Great Ajax of the Revolution" in 
North Carolina, the patriotic. and 
lion-hearted John Harvey; to Corne- 
lius Harnett, "The Samuel Adams of 
North Carolina;" to Gen. John Ashe, 
"The most chivalrous hero of the 
Revolution;" to Richard Caswell, one 
of the greatest of Carolinians; to John 
Paul Jones, who made the stars and 
stripes known and feared on every 
sea; to Joseph Hewes, signer of 
the Declaration of Independence 
and organizer of the Ameri- 
can Navy; to John Penn, 
signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence; to Samuel Johnston, 
Speaker, Governor and United States 
Senator; to Col. Alexander Lillington, 
of Moore's Creek fame; to Col. James 
Moore, soldier of the Revolution; to 
Thomas Jones, one of the authors of 
the Constitution; to James Iredell 
and Alfred Moore, the great jurists; 
to General William R. Davie, ora- 
tor, soldier, statesman and father of 
the University of North Carolina; to 
Willie Jones, statesman and leader; 
to Nathaniel Macon, Congressman, 

United States Senator, "The last of 
the Romans;" to William Gaston, 
jurist and statesman; to James C. 
Dobbin, Speaker of the House of 
Commons, member of Congress, and 
Secretary of the Navy; to John 
Branch, member of Congress, Gov- 
ernor and Secretary of Navy; to 
George E. Badger, jurist, United 
States Senator and Secretary of Navy; 
to Thomas Ruffin, one of the greatest 
of American jurists; to Archibald D. 
Murphey, scholar and jurist; to David 
L. Swain, jurist, Governor and Pres- 
ident of the University of North Car- 
olina; to Weldon N. Edwards, states- 
man and president of the Secession 
Convention; to William L. Saunders, 
soldier, editor, historian, statesman; 
to General M. W. Ransom, soldier, 
orator and statesman; to General 
Thomas L. Clingman, soldier and Uni- 
ted States Senator; to General D. H. 
Hill, the hero of a hundred battles; 
to General W. D. Pender, the superb 
soldier who, had he commanded at 
Gettysburg, would have saved the Con- 
federacy, now lying in an unmarked 
grave at Tarboro; to General J. John r 
ston Pettigrew, brilliant soldier and 
commander of the world -famed 
charge at Gettysburg; to General Ju- 
nius Daniel, the gallant soldier killed 
at Spottsylvania; to Branch, Ander- 
son, Ramseur, Gordon and others who 
made glory for North Carolina, and 
who sealed their devotion to their 
State with their lives. 

North Carolina has been criticized 
for a want of spirit in not having 
delegates attend the *Stamp Act Con- 
gress at New York, October 2, 1765. 
This colony's want of representation 
was due to Governor Tryon's shrewd- 
ness in preventing all meetings of the 
North Carolina Assembly during the 
Stamp Act troubles, which made it 
impossible for the colony to select 
delegates; but while the Stamp Act 
Congress was passing resolves, the 
Cape Fear planters led by the most 
distinguished soldier of the Province. 
General Hugh Waddell, and by Colo- 
nel John Ashe, Speaker of the As- 

* It is not generally known that Henry M'Culloh was probably the author of the proposal to extend 
the Stamp duties to the American Colonies. ...,,„,. .j i, a~ +„ „™ 

He proposed stamp duties "as a source of taxation by which the Colonies could be made to con- 
tribute a quota to the cost of the late war * * * and to put these concerns upon a_Pr°Per 
footing- it will be absolutely necessary to establish proper Funds in America, by a stamp Duty on Vellum 
and Paper." Grenville adopted this suggestion and reaped all the fam'e and ill-fame of it. 

See "Miscellaneous Representations relative to Our Concerns In America Submitted to tnefcarl 
of Bute by Henry M'Culloh." Published by Wm. A. Shaw, Editor of the Calendar of Treasury Books 

George Harding, Dealer in Economics. Historical Works, etc., 64 Great Russell St., London, W. C. 

Henry M'Culloh was Inspector of quit rents in North and South Carolina (1739). Naval Officer at 
Cape Breton ( 1746). Secretary and Clerk of the Crown for North Carolina. He owned over one million 
acres of land in North Carolina, at the heads of Pee Dee, Cape Fear and Neuse Rivers. He was the 
father of Henry Eustace M'Culloh and great uncle of James Iredell. 

sembly, were defying- the British Gov- 
ernment. After having made the 
Stamp Master sign a paper declaring 
he would never execute the duties de- 
volving upon him by this position, 
they forced the Captain of the British 
Sloop of War "Diligence" to surren- 
der to their demands. This was the 
first armed resistance to British op- 
pression in America and a painting 
of that scene should be familiar to 
every child in this country. 

As subjects for paintings worthy of 
world fame that should adorn our 
Capitol walls may be mentioned: 

The landing of the English in 

The first English settlement and 
fort in the New World. 

Virginia Dare. 

The first rite of Christian baptism 
in America. 

George Durant in 1661 buying land 
from Kilcocanen, King of the Teopim 
Indians, twenty years before the Wil- 
liam Penn treaty at Uplands in 1682. 

The Mecklenburg Declaration of In- 
dependence, 1775. 

Halifax Convention and Resolution 
of April 12. 1776. 

General Jethro Sumner's famous 
bayonet charge at Eutaw Springs, the 
most celebrated charge of the Revolu- 
tionary War. 

Eattle of King's Mountain. 

General Robert Howe in command 
of Virginia and North Carolina troops 
driving Lord Dunmore, the British 
Governor, to his ships in Norfolk har- 

Andrew Jackson commanding North 
Carolinians and Tennesseeans at the 
battle of New Orleans. 

Johnston Blakeley's battles on the 
high seas. 

Secession Convention of 1861 when 
North Carolina left the Union without 
a dissenting vote. 

Pettigrew's world renowned charge 
at Gettysburg. 

Ramseur's Brigade saving the army 
at Spottsylvania. 

The Fourth North Carolina Regi- 
ment at Seven Pines. 

The Twenty-sixth North Carolina 
Regiment at Gettysburg. 

The Fifth North Carolina Regiment 
at Williamsburg. 

Capt. Tuttle's Company at Gettys- 

The undaunted Hill at South Moun- 
tain, where, with 4,000 men, he held 
at bay for a whole day 30,000 men, the 
flower of McClellan's army. 

Hoke's capture of Plymouth. 

The Albemarle fight at the mouth of 
Roanoke River. 

Fort Fisher, the greatest bombard- 
ment in history. 

Last at Appomattox. 

James Iredell Waddell, commanding 
the Shenandoah, carrying the Stars 
and Bars around the world eight 
months after Lee's surrender, and 
other remarkable events. 

At the University of North Carolina 
is the great Memorial Hall upon 
whose walls are tablets to her distin- 
guished alumni, embracing many of 
the most illustrious sons. On 
the walls of the Philanthropic and 
Dialectic Societies is probably the best 
collection of oil portraits of distin- 
guished men to be found in the South. 

The sons of this institution have 
adorned North Carolina life for more 
than a century and their Alma Mater 
honors them and herself in perpetu- 
ating their memory, and the history 
of the State can be read in the lives 
of these men. At Chapel Hill was 
built the first astronomical observa- 
tory in the United States (1831) by 
Dr. Joseph Caldwell, a president of 
this institution. A monument to Dr. 
Caldwell stands on the campus. Prof. 
Olmstead, of the University, organ- 
ized the first geological and mineral- 
ogic survey in America. 

In the State Library, Supreme Court 
Library, Governor's Mansion and Ex- 
ecutive office there are many portraits 
of North Carolinians who have been 
foremost in the service of the State. 

At the Governor's Mansion there is 
also a bust of Governor John W. Ellis. 
There are also paintings and memori- 
als to soldiers of the State in the 
North Carolina Room in the 
Confederate Museum in Richmond, 
and at the Lee Camp Hall in Rich- 

North Carolina has honored the 
memory of some of her sons by 
naming for them. 

Alexander was named for the Alex- 
ander family of Mecklenburg. 

Ashe for Governor Samuel Ashe. 

Buncombe for Colonel Edward Bun- 

Burke for Governor Thomas Burke. 

Cabarrus for Stephen Cabarrus. 

Caldwell for Dr. Joseph Caldwell. 

Caswell for General Richard Cas- 

Cleveland for Col. Benjamin Clove- 

Dare for Virginia Dare. 

Davidson for General William L. 

Davie for General W. R. Davie. 

Durham for Dr. B. L. Durham. 

Forsyth for Col. Benjamin Forsyth. 

Gaston for Judge William Gaston. 

Graham for Hon. W. A. Graham. 

Harnett for Cornelius Harnett. 

Haywood for Hon. John Haywood. 

Henderson for Hon. Leonard Hend- 

Iredell for Judge James Iredell. 

Jones for General Willie Jones. 

Lenoir for Gen. William Lenoir. 

McDowell for Col. Joseph McDow- 

Macon for Nathaniel Macon. 

Mitchell for Rev. Dr. Elisha 

Moore for Judge Alfred Moore. 

Nash for Gen. Francis Nash. 

Pender for Gen. W. D. Pender. 

Person for Gen. Thomas Person. 

Polk for Gen. Thomas Polk. 

Rutherford for Gen. Griffith Ruth- 

Sampson for Col. John Sampson. 

Stanly for Hon. John Stanly. 

Stokes for Hon. John Stokes. 

Swain for Governor David L. Swain. 

Vance for Governor Zebulon B. 

Wilson for Col. Louis D. Wilson. 

Yancey for Hon. Bartlett Yancey. 

The great growth in the past few 
years of patriotic organizations in 
North Carolina promises much for the 
development of historic interest in the 
State. Now at work are the various 
Confederate Memorial Associations, 
the Daughters of the Confederacy, the 
Society of the Cincinnati, the Sons of 
the Revolution, North Carolina His- 
torical Society at the University, 
Trinity College Historical Society, 
Wachovia Historical Society, Alamance 
Battle Ground Association, Guilford 
Battle Ground Association, Moore's 
Creek Battle Ground Association, 
North Carolina Society of the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution, 
North Carolina Society of the Daugh- 
ters of the Revolution, King's Moun- 
tain Battle Ground Association, Daniel 
Boone Association, John Charles Mc- 
Neill Memorial Society and others. 

The most pathetic, the most tragic, 
the most heroic, the grandest figure 
of all the ages, is the Confederate 
soldier at Appomattox. Over his vis- 
ion comes the scene of the smoulder- 
ing ruins of his boyhood home. His 
land is drenched in blood. An old 
widowed mother weeps for his father 
who gave his life for a lost cause 
and prays for her son's return. A pal- 
lid and sickened wife overwrought 
and overworked struggles in vain for 
bread, the hunger-cry of his starv- 
ing children maddens his brain, the 
shot-torn, lifeless form of his brother 
lies piled unburied in the trenches 
behind him; half starved, half naked, 
foot-sore and emaciated he stands. A 
far-away look is on his face, tears 
furrow his powder-sta'ned, dusty 
cheeks, but there is the light of bat- 
tle in his eye, the fire of a great un- 
conquerable principle within his 
heart. Resolute and undaunted he 
turns about and with bitter protests 
at being surrendered, begs his old 

commander to lead him back to battle, 
back to the field of blood and death; 
pleading he stands as the life-blood 
of the Confederacy ebbs away in the 
smoke of the North Carolina guns at 

To the Confederate soldier North 
Carolina has erected a great monu- 
ment in the Capitol Square at Ral- 
eigh. The State has also placed a 
monument at Appomattox which bears 
on the north side this inscription: 

"Last at Appomattox. 

At This Place the North Carolina 

Brigade of Brigadier-General W. 

R. Cox of Grimes' Division 
Fired the Last Volley 9 April, 1865. 
M„.ior-General Bryan Grimes of North 


Planned the Last Battle Fought by the 

Army of Northern Virginia and 

Commanded the Infantry 

Engasred Therein, the Greater Part 

of Whom Were North Carolinians. 
This Stone is Erected by the Author- 
ity of 
The General Assembly 
North Carolina 
In Grateful and Perpetual Memory of 
the Valor, Endurance, and Patri- 
otism of Her Sons 
Who Followed with Unshaken Fidel- 
ity the Fortunes of the Confed- 
eracy to This Closing Scene, 
Faithful to the End. 
Erected 9 April, 1905." 

On the south side is a list of the 
North Carolina Brigades with number 
of troops paroled at Appomattox. The 
east and west ends are devoted to 
North Carolina's war record. 

At Appomattox markers have also 
been placed on the spot where a bat- 
tery was captured the morning of the 
surrender by the North Carolina 
Brigade of General W. P. Roberts, 
and at the place where was fought 
the last skirmish by Capt. W. T. 
Jenkins, of the 14th North Carolina 
Regiment, commanding men of the \ 
4th and 14th regiments. 

At Bethel, the Bethel Monument As- 
sociation of Virginia and North Car- 
olina have erected a monument to 
Henry Lawson Wyatt, and North Car- 
olina has placed a marker where 
Wyatt fell. 

At Chickamauga, the State of North 
Carolina has erected a monument "To 
mark the point attained by the Six- 
tieth N. C. Regiment on September 
20, 1863;" another "To mark the point 
attained by the Thirty-ninth North 
Carolina Regiment on September 19, 
1863;" another on Snodgrass Hill "To 
mark the extreme point attained in a 
charge by the right of the Fifty-eighth 
North Carolina Regiment about 6 p. 

m., September 20, 1863;" and yet an- 
other on Snodgrass Hill where the 
Thirty-ninth North Carolina Regiment 
crossed the Federal line about sunset 
September 20, 1863. 

Another monument at Chickamauga 
has been erected by the Asheville 
Chapter of the Daughters of the Con- 
federacy and friends of Sixtieth North 
Carolina Regiment. "Thi.s marks the 
spot reached by the Sixtieth Regi- 
ment North Carolina Volunteers about 
noon September 20, 1863, the farth- 
est point attained by Confederate 
troops in that famous charge." 

To the Confederate soldier a grate- 
ful and responsive people haye erect- 
ed many monuments, and others are 
now being raised. Among them may 
bo mentioned those at: 

Asheville, Bentonville, Charlotte, 
Columbia, Concord, Edenton, Frank- 
lin, Fayetteville, Goldsboro, Greens- 
boro, Henderson, Hendersr nville, Lex- 
ington, Lumberton, Louisburg, Mor- 
ganton, New Bern, Newton, Oxford, 
Fitisboro, Rockingham. Raleigh, 

Staiesville, Shelby, Salisbury, Tarboro, 
Wilmington, Warrent^n, Wilson. 
V a'lesboro, "Washington. Windsor, 

The Daughters of the Confederacy 
are now erecting a. monument at Wil- 
mington to George Davis, attorney 
General of the Confederacy, the cor- 
ner-stone of which was laid during 
the recent Convention of the United 
Daughters of the Confederal.';/ in that 
city on October 14, 1909. 

At the old Blandford Church at 
Petersburg, Virginia, a North Caro- 
lina memorial window was unveiled 
on Sunday, June 2nd, 1907. "In mem- 
ory of North Carolina's soldiers 40.- 
275 of whom proved their devotion 
by their death." These lines are fol- 
lowed by the words "God Bless North 
Carolina. R. E. Lee." (Fac simile 

At Guilford Court House the Bat- 
tle Ground Association, under the 
leadership of that gallant soldier and 
patriotic citizen, Col. Joseph M. More- 
head, has erected or secured the erec- 
tion of the following monuments: 

Col. Arthur Forbes (1888). 

Battle Ground Pyramid (1888). 

Shaft over three Continentals, called 
"Red, White and Blue." (1888). 

Capt. James Tate (1891). 

General Jethro Sumner (1891). 

Maryland Monument (1892). 

Major John Daves (1903). 

Col. Joseph Winston and Gov. Jesse 
Franklin, 1S95, reinterred here 1906. 

Lieut.-Col. James Stewart (British) 

Col. Hal Dixon (1896). 

Hooper-Penn Signers (1896). 

Northern Limit; Southern Limit. 

Old Manor House. 

Gillies Lee's Bugler Boy (1898). 

Nathaniel Macon (1908). 

Capt. James Morehead (1902). 

A Polished Marker (4 sides) "No 
North, Washington; No South, Greene" 

Alamance Monument (1901). 

King's Mountain (1904). 

Judge Schenck (1904). 

Gen. Davidson (1906). 

General Nash (1906). 

Clio, Muse of History (1908). 

Caldwell (1909). 

Bretigny and Wm. Washington 

Monolith "E Pluribus Unum." 
(On the grounds, yet to be erected). 

Completed base awaiting projected 
Delaware monument. 

The Wachovia Historical Society has 
been active in collecting historical 
records and has erected the following 

Tablet marking the place and time 
of arrival of the first Moravian settlers 
in Wachovia, November, 1753, and site 
of their first dwelling. 

Tablet erected on the site of the 
"Old Dutch Fort" which was erected 
for protection from the Indians dur- 
ing the French and Indian War, 1756- 

Granite posts marking the corners 
and outline of the "Old Dutch Fort." 

Granite monument at Bethabara 
Church to commemorate the beginning 
of Wachovia and the founding ofj 
Bethabara in November, 1753. Monu- 
ment gives the names of the first set- 
tlers, etc. 

All of the above tablets are at Beth- 
abara, six miles north of Winston- 
Salem and were erected in 1903. There 
is another tablet at Bethabara, erect- 
ed in 1803, to commemorate the first 
fifty years of Wachovia. 

Tablet erected at the Old Salem 
Hotel, in Salem, to commemorate the 
visit of President Washington in 17 91. 
Gov. Martin, of North Carolina, visit- 
ed President Washington while he 
was a guest there. 

Bronze tablet placed on the door to 
"Washington's Room" in Old Salem 

These two tablets were erected in 
190S by the Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution and the Wachovia His- 
torical Society. 

The Sons of the Revolution annual- 
ly present to the State of North Caro- 
lina, an oil portrait of some distin- 
guished Revolutionary leader. This 
society has presented to the State 
portraits of James Iredell, Alfred 
Moore, Samuel Johnson and Alexander 
Martin, and will in a few days present 
a portrait of Governor Abner Nash. 

The North Carolina Society of 
the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution has erected a number of me- 

The Elizabeth Maxwell Steele Chap- 
ter, of Salisbury, has erected one to 
Elizabeth Maxwell Steele. 

The Dorcas Bell Love Chapter of 
TVaynesville, has erected a bronze 
tablet in memory of Col. Robert Love. 

The Edward Buncombe Chapter in 
.Asheville will establish a memorial to 
Col. Edward Buncombe. 

The Morganton Chapter will mark 
the place of the Council Oak at Qua- 
ker Meadows under which Colonels 
Sevier, Campbell and the two McDow- 
ells planned the battle of King's 

The Mecklenburg Chapter has mon- 
uments to the 

Mclntyre Skirmish, Oct. 3, 1780. 

Monument near Pineville to mark 
birthplace of James K. Polk, and a 
marker at the Sugar Creek Burying 

The Joseph Winston Chapter, co- 
operating with the Wachovia Histori- 
cal Association has marked with two 
bronze tablets points in Old Salem 
town identified with Washington's 
visit, and this chapter will soon mark 
Junaluska's grave. 

The North Carolina Society of the 
Daughters of the Revolution has erect- 
ed a memorial tablet in the rotunda 
of the Capitol to commemorate the 
Edenton Tea Party. 

A patriotic citizen has marked the 
spot on which the celebrated Tea 
Party house stood. 

The North Carolina Society of the 
Colonial Dames of America has erect- 
ed a monument to Cornelius Harnett; 
a monument at the ruins of the 
Church of St. Philip, and under their 
auspices a memorial has been erected 
at Brunswick to Col. Maurice Moore 
and "to the heroes and patriots of the 
Lower Cape Fear led by Hugh Wad- 
dell and John Ashe;" and they have 
also marked the site of Governor Try- 
on's palace at Russelboro. 

At Moore's Creek, the first great 
American victory of the Revolution 
was won, an event that not only in- 
spirited the whole of America, but as 
Frothingham says, "Carried North 
Carolina as a unit in favor of inde- 
pendence when the colonies from New 
England to Virginia were in solid ar- 
ray against it." On the battlefield 
there has recently been unveiled a 
monument to the Loyalists who fought 
and fell there, beautifully illustrating 
the present homogeneity of our people 
whose ancestors fought on both sides 
in that momentous battle. 

At King's Mountain the government 
has just finished a handsome monu- 
ment and the King's Mountain Battle 

Ground Association is making an ef- 
fort to have the government establish 
a national park there. 

On the Alamance Battlefield chere 
is a monument erected to "The First 
Battle of the Revolution," and the 
Alamance Battle Ground Association 
also proposes to erect one where the 
Pyle Hacking Match took place near 

Among others worthy of mention 
are monuments to The Mecklenburg 
Declaration at Charlotte; Memorial 
Stone at Fort Raleigh; to Andrew 

Jackson at ; to William Hooper 

at Wilmington; to Richard Caswell at 
Kinston;'to Dr. Elisha Mitchell at Mt. 
Mitchell; to Capt. Otway Burns at 
Burnsville; to Washington Duke at 
Trinity College; to Zebulon B. Vance 
at Asheville; to Richmond M. Pearson 
at Raleigh (by his former law stu- 
dents) ; and one at Charlotte to the 
heroic William E. Shipp, whose gal- 
lant young life was laid down for his 
country at Santiago. 

Probably the most important event 
in the history of North Carolina was 
the Halifax Resolution presented for 
the committee by Cornelius Harnett 
to the Provincial Congress, April 12, 
1776, which reads as follows: 

"Resolved, That the delegates for 
this colony in the Continental Con- 
gress be empowered to concur with 
the delegates of other colonies in de- 
claring independency, and forming 
foreign alliances, reserving to this 
colony the sole and exclusive right of 
forming a constitution and laws for 
this colony, and of appointing dele- 
gates from time to time under the 
direction of a general representation 
thereof, to meet delegates of other 
colonies for such purposes as shall 
be hereafter pointed out." 

From this time forward all political 
relations were severed with Great 
Britain and North Carolina acted as 
an independent colony. This reso- 
lution should be lettered in bronze and 
affixed to the walls of our capitol. 

The General Assembly of North Car- 
olina of 1909 made April 12th a State 
holiday in commemoration of that 
great event. Various Northern States 
have erected monuments to their dead 
in Federal cemeteries at different 
points in North Carolina, notably at 
Salisbury and New Bern. 

A number of I\orth Carolinians have 
established memorials in the form of 
college buildings, endowments, schol- 
arships and prizes; but the most beau- 
tiful memorial in this State is the 
Olivia Raney Library. This li- 
brary was built by a generous 
man as a memorial to his wife, a gift- 
ed Christian woman whose mission in 

life was to help and make happier 
those who came within the radius of 
her acquaintance. In life her work 
was a benediction — in death her in- 
fluence still lives and grows, benefit- 
ting and giving pleasure to the many 
hundreds who avail themselves of this 
beneficence. On this curtain we see 
a picture of the famous Taj Mahal, 
built by an Indian Prince, in memory 
of his queen — a tribute to love and 
vanity. Surrounding us is the Olivia 
Raney Library, erected by a noble 
hearted gentleman in memory of the 
queen of his home — an expression of 
love and altruism. 

There are hundreds of historic sites, 
buildings, colonial forts, battle 
grounds, churches and schools, 
colonial houses, burial places, etc., 
which are still unmarked. The best 
list of these places obtainable has 
been arranged and compiled by that 
devoted Carolinian, Mrs. James 
Sprunt, in a most interesting and val- 
uable paper prepared for the National 
Society of the Colonial Dames of 
America. As complete a list as the 
Historical Commission has been able to 
compile is appended to this paper. The 
State Historical Commission is now 
endeavoring, though with slow local 
co-operation, to make an accurate list 
of these places, arranged by counties. 
The work of marking and protecting 
these places must be done by the 
home people and local societies. There 
are public spirited citizens with local 
pride in every community who should 
organize for this purpose. The Com- 
mission hopes to be able to co-operate 
with local chapters of the Daughters 
of the Confederacy, Colonial Dames 
and Daughters of the Revolution, 
Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion and other patriotic societies. 
This would be one of the most pa- 
triotic ends to which these associa- 
tions could lend themselves. The 
Commission will also make an effort 
to interest the schools and school or- 
ganizations in the various counties in 
this work. In no other way can his- 
tory be better taught or local pride 
stimulated or interest aw r akened in 
the State. Another phase of histori- 
cal work to which our patriotic so- 
cieties could direct their efforts is to 
prevent vandalism and desecration. 

On a beautiful eminence overlook- 
ing the wide waters of Pasquotank 
River as it loses itself in Albemarle 
Sound is the site of Elmwood, or Th'e 
Elms, the old colonial seat of the 
Swanns. Here stood a brick house-, 
one of the first built in the colony. 
During the war between the States 
Federal troops tore it down to use 
the brick for other purposes. In it 
probably lived more distinguished men 

than ever occupied any one residence 
in North Carolina. Judge Iredell said 
it was celebrated for a more lavish 
hospitality and more generous enter- 
tainment than any home in the col- 
ony. Here lived Col. Thomas Swann, 
Speaker; Col. William Swann, Speak- 
er; and three members of the family 
by the name of Samuel Swann; John 
Swann, member of Congress, and their 
families. Here lived Frederick Blount, 
son of Col. John. Blount, a brother-in- 
law of Bishop Pettigrew and' a man 
of wealth and culture and an 
intimate associate of Governor 
Tryon's. Here lived for a while, 
William Shepard, a staunch 

Federalist, ship owner, planter, and 
merchant. Of William Shepard's 
sons several moved to the far South. 
The three who remained in North 
Carolina were Charles B., who was 
a member of Congress and declined 
re-election; William B., who was a 
member of Congress and declined re- 
election; James B., who was a can- 
didate for Governor of North Caro- 
lina. Of his sons-in-law John H. 
Bryan was Member of Congress and 
declined re-election; Ebenezer Petti- 
grew was Member of Congress and 
declined re-election. 

In later years Rev. Solomon Pool, 
President of the University of North 
Carolina, lived there, as did John 
Pool. United States Senator and can- 
didate for Governor. 

At Elmwood lived and with it were 
identified, two Speakers of the As- 
sembly, five Congressmen, one United 
States Senator, a candidate for Gov- 
ernor and a President of the Univer- 
sity. No other home in North Caro- 
lina had so many historic associa- 

This old estate has now been sold 
and divided into smaller farms. In 
the preparation of a sketch not long 
since, the writer was anxious to get 
inscription records from the Swann 
tombstones, but was informed that 
the Swann bricked in graves had re- 
cently been dug up by treasure 
hunters and such stones as might be 
there were covered with brick and 
dirt from the excavations of the gold 
diggers and grave robbers. Such 
vandalism is a disgrace to North 
Carolina and no punishment is too 
severe for these ghouls. 

My attention has been called to 
other colonial graves that have 
been robbed within the year. 
The State should watch more 
carefully over these men who 
after serving her have been laid to 
rest in her bosom. Let them "rest in 
peace." Some means should be de- 


vised to protect our sacred places 
from profanation by those base de- 
generates who fringe the lowest shores 
of humanity. We call upon the pa- 
triotic people in every community to 
locate, mark and care for their his- 
toric places. 

The want of cities in North Caro- 
lina with well known depositories is 
one of the chief reasons why there 
has been no large collection of his- 
torical papers. Individuals have from 
time to time made valuable collec- 
tions, but these collections in some 
cases have been burned or otherwise 
destroyed or have found their way 
to other States. The want of a fixed 
capital also accounts in a large de- 
gree for the loss of much of the offi- 
cial history of the State. In 1748 
Governor Gabriel Johnston writing 
from Edenton to the Lords of the 
Eoard of Trade in discussing "An act 
for Building of Public offices for 
Public Meetings and Keeping of Rec- 
ords" says "This Province has been 
very unhappy for want of such build- 
ings ever since I knew it. The Pub- 
lic Records lye in a miserable condi- 
tion; one part of them at Edenton. 
near the Virginia line, in a place 
without Lock or Key; a great part 
of them in the Secretary's house at 
Cape Fear, about two hundred miles 
distance from the other. Some few 
of them at the Clerk of the Council's 
house at New Bern, so that in what- 
ever part of the colony a man happens 
to be. if he wants to consult any pa- 
per or record he must send some 
hundred of miles before he can come 
at it." 

In 1749 the General Assembly ap- 
pointed John Starkey. Edward Grif- 
fith and Jeremiah "Vail, commission- 
ers, for erecting Public Buildinsrs at 
New Pern. If these commissioners 
had erected the Public Buildings at 
this time, thousands of most valuable 
records and interesting papers would 
have been saved. This would have 
preserved much lost history and would 
have given the State a rank in the 
eyes of the world that millions in 
money could not buy. 

Tn 170 7 was commenced the build- 
ing of the Palace at New Bern. It 
was the State House, as well as resi- 
dence for the Governor and contained 
an Assembly Hall, Council Chamber 
and public offices. Writing of this 
elegant and noble structure Governor 
Tryon in 1770 says it was "A Palace 
that is a public ornament and credit 
to the colony, as well as an honor 
to British America." The public rec- 
ords were moved into it in January, 

1771. It probably cost more than the 
people could afford at the time, but 
had the seat of government remained 
at New Bern, the building of that 
State House would have been a wise 
investment. There were about 250,- 
000 people in the Province at that 
time and there was an in-rush of im- 
migration then in progress such as 
no other province in America exper- 
ienced. So great was the prejudice 
against this "monument to royalty" 
and such was the inconvenience to 
the central and western sections of 
the State that the Palace was aban- 
doned and the Capital became peram- 
bulatory, naturally causing the loss 
of many priceleci records and manu- 
scripts. With a migratory capital for 
nearly twenty years, it is 

impossible to estimate the dis- 
advantage to the State. The 
cost of the Palace was an unending 
source of criticism of Tryon, but as 
a State House it was necessary, even 
if built on too grand a scale for North 
Carolina. It undoubtedly had an ef- 
fect upon architecture in the province, 
it preserved our records and we now 
take pride in having had the finest 
building of its time on the Western 
Hemisphere, even though it was aban- 
doned and finally lost from neglect 
and carelessness. 

The building of the present capitol 
at a time when the State was very 
poor (in the decade between 1830-40 
when our population increased only 
2 per cent, and we had about three- 
fourths of a million people) at a cost 
of more than half a million dollars 
provoked much criticism. But every 
intelligent man admits that it was a 
most wise expenditure and though 
the State has long outgrown it, we find 
satisfaction in its symmetry and un- 
surpassed architectural beauty and we 
are loath to enlarge it. All the de- 
partments of State are too much 
crowded to render the best service and 
a more capacious building is now ab- 
solutely necessary for the transaction 
of public business. A larger capitol 
or additional building must come as 
a business necessity and economy. 

In considering additional buildings, 
it may be found wise to take under 
advisement the acquirement by the 
State of the area bounded by Wil- 
mington, Jones. Salisbury and Eden- 
ton streets. This would give a public 
square 420x516 feet, the same width 
as Union Square, on which the 
capitol stands. In the center of 
that square across Halifax street 
could be erected a State government 
building, commodious, fire proof, mod- 
ern in its equipments and adequate for 
the transaction of the affairs of the 
State. It could contain offices for 


State offices, State Library, Supreme 
Court Rooms, and Supreme Court Li- 
brary, Agricultural Department, etc. 
The basement could be made into stor- 
age rooms, arsenal, etc. One floor 
should be devoted to a Hall of History, 
in which portraits, paintings, mural 
tablets, medallions, inscriptions, stat- 
ues and monuments would show the 
history and life of our people spread 
out as a great panorama for the gaze 
of our own and future generations. 

In our Capitol should be mural tab- 
lets portraying the war record of our 
State. Inscriptions should tell the 
tale of the ill-fated Carthagena ex- 
pedition in which hundreds died with 
no record of even their names; of the 
North Carolina soldiers sent to the 
French and Indian Wars; of the sol- 
diers in the Revolution when North 
Carolina was the great recruiting 
ground for the American army (this 
State furnished over 22,000 soldiers 
to the army of the Revolution and the 
names of only about 9,000 have been 
preserved); of North Carolina's record 
in the War of 1S12; of our part in the 
Mexican War; of North Carolina's 
sacrifices in the Great War for South- 
ern Independence; and of our record 
in the Spanish-American War. 

Our State is now enjoying a period 
of marvelous growth, such as she 
never before experienced. Great man- 
ufacturing enterprises have sprung up 
and are being enlarged and enlarged 
again. Industries are being developed, 
agriculture is being improved and an 
era of prosperity and increase in pop- 

ulation is upon us. The State and 
the people are growing richer and 
stronger, education is encouraged with 
a liberality of money and of thought 
never before known; culture, litera- 
ture, and the arts will increase with 
wealth and leisure. But with our 
agricultural growth and resources un- 
surpassed, with material wealth enor- 
mously increasing, with our manu- 
facturing plants being multiplied with- 
out end, we realize that our greatest 
resource and asset are our people — 
people of intelligence and character, 
and our greatest manufacturing plants 
are the schools which convert the un- 
finished product of a raw boy or girl 
into the educated, patriotic North 
Carolinian. Today there are over 
700,000 children in the schools of the 
State — the State will live in them and 
they will make the State. We must 
plant into the hearts and minds of 
those who are one day to shape its 
destinies, make its laws, write its his- 
tory, sing its songs and paint its glor- 
ies, a love and veneration for the 
State. To make a great and glorious 
future, we must have the knowledge 
and inspiration of a great past, for hu- 
manity is most powerful in teaching 
by example, and history is most gra- 
phic when our ideals or examples can 
be shown in imperishable paintings, 
marbles or bronze. Let us strive not 
only to offer the written word, but 
show to the world the visible forms 
and features of the great actors in the 
life of our State. 





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